Metas de redução de impacto ambiental

As emissões globais de CO2 na construção civil são responsáveis por 38% ou seja 9,95 Giga toneladas correspondentes a energia relacionada  à indústria da construção civil. 

²

Em 2019 as emissões atingiram o nível mais alto já visto, de acordo com o último relatório Relatório de Situação Global 2020 para Edifícios e Construção

No entanto, em 2020 com a pandemia, houveram muitas paralisações que ajudaram na redução que será contabilizado no próximo relatório anual. Oportunidades apareceram para incentivar a renovação de edifícios e padrões de desempenho para edifícios recém-construídos, assim ajudando a reduzir também as emissões e promover a sustentabilidade no setor. Governos priorizam estímulo após Covid-19 para edifícios de baixo carbono.
50% das emissões diretas e 60% das emissões indiretas deverão ser reduzidas até 2030, para que atinja a neutralidade climática proposta pelo tratado de Paris (COP 21) até 2050. Essa redução equivale a 6% ao ano até 2030. ¹

Emissões no Brasil

No Brasil as emissões em 2019 foram 2,17 GtCO2. Que condiz 9,6% a mais que em 2018, conforme estudo feito pelo observatório do clima, Sistema de Estimativas de Emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa (SEEG)5. De acordo com esse resultado, o Brasil ocupa a sexta posição no ranking dos países que mais polui a atmosfera.³

No setor de processos industriais de materiais para construção civil contabilizou 99,1 MtCO2e. Equivalente a 5% das emissões brutas nacionais. Houve uma queda de 2% comparado com o ano anterior.  As principais fontes dessas emissões são da produção do setor de cimento, ferro-gusa e aço. 4

 

Exemplo: Edifício Residencial

Área total construída 5.950 m²

Apartamentos = 32

Moradores = 166

Vida útil estimada = 60 anos

 

Cenário Atual – Prática de Mercado

Total de emissões em 60 anos = 8.916 tCO2

Total de emissões por m2 = 1.498 kg CO2e / m2

Total de emissões por morador por ano = 895 kg CO2e/ morador/ano

Proporção dos impactos:

  • Impactos Operacionais = 48% (Energia, Água)
  • Impactos Incorporados = 52% (Materiais, transporte, construção, manutenção e fim de vida)

Impactos ao longo de 60 anos em kg de CO2e:

AnoOperacionalIncorporadoTotal Emissões
164,5032,552,1922,616,695
5258,01427,2452,901,954
10322,517121,2043,345,675
15322,51767,7073,735,899
20322,517458,5824,516,998
25322,51750,1104,889,625
30322,517184,7475,396,889
35322,51735,0565,754,463
40322,517493,8926,570,871
45322,517235,9017,129,290
50322,517174,9297,626,736
55322,517199,7288,148,980
60322,517444,5338,916,031

 

 

1 – Cenário Proposto

  • Redução do impacto incorporado = 60% em 10 anos
  • Redução do Impacto Operacional = 100% 
    • Net Zero Carbono Operacional através de exportação de energia

Ano

Operacional

Incorporado

Total Emissões

1

0

1,020,877

1,020,877

5

0

10,898

1,031,775

10

0

48,481

1,080,256

15

0

67,707

1,147,963

20

0

458,582

1,606,545

25

0

50,110

1,656,655

30

0

184,747

1,841,402

35

0

35,056

1,876,458

40

0

493,892

2,370,350

45

0

235,901

2,606,251

50

0

174,929

2,781,180

55

0

199,728

2,980,908

60

0

444,533

3,425,441

 

 

 

2 – Cenário Proposto 

  • Redução Impacto Incorporado = 60% em 10 anos
  • Redução Impacto Operacional = 100% 
    • Net Zero Carbono Operacional através de Geração / Exportação de energia na rede            
    • Excesso de geração é injetada na rede e gera crédito de carbono para o projeto
    • Compensação com créditos de carbono (Carbon offsets) – Impacto Inicial
AnoOperacional (Crédito)IncorporadoOffset CarbonTotal Emissões
101,020,877-1,020,8770
5-10,89810,89800
10-48,48148,48100
15-67,70767,70700
20-458,582458,58200
25-50,11050,11000
30-184,747184,74700
35-35,05635,05600
40-493,892493,89200
45-235,901235,90100
50-174,929174,92900
55-199,728199,72800
60-444,533444,53300

 

 

3 – Cenário Proposto 

  • Redução Impacto Incorporado = 60% em 10 anos
  • Redução Impacto Operacional = 100% 
    • Net Zero Carbono Operacional através de Geração de energia na rede
    • Excesso de geração é injetada na rede e gera crédito de carbono para o projeto
    • Maior capacidade de geração, dispensa uso de créditos de carbono.
AnoOperacional (Crédito)IncorporadoTotal Emissões
1-57,090.681,020,876.69963,786.01
5-228,362.7210,897.98746,321.28
10-285,453.4048,481.46509,349.34
15-285,453.4067,706.73291,602.67
20-285,453.40458,582.31464,731.58
25-285,453.4050,109.94229,388.12
30-285,453.40184,747.14128,681.86
35-285,453.4035,056.00-121,715.54
40-285,453.40493,891.7886,722.84
45-285,453.40235,901.0437,170.48
50-285,453.40174,928.72-73,354.20
55-285,453.40199,727.79-159,079.81
60-285,453.40444,533.200

 

Referências:

Emissões do setor de construção civil atingiram recordes em 2019 – relatório da ONU

Launched: 2020 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT FOR BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTION | Globalabc

Brasil é o sétimo maior emissor de CO2 do mundo. As emissões caíram ou aumentaram?

Agropecuária foi responsável por 73% da emissão de CO2 do Brasil em 2019

Emissões de CO2 caíram em 2,4 bilhões de toneladas devido à pandemia

Gases de Efeito Estufa 2020

The Complete Guide To Carbon Management in Real Estate

With the built environment responsible for 40% of global carbon emissions, decarbonising real estate assets must be a key priority for investors and corporate occupiers.

Real Estate Portfolio Carbon Management

The commercial real estate industry has accelerated its focus on responsibility and social purpose. Occupiers, investors and city leaders each have a role to play in meeting demand for greener, more sustainable spaces, and how it can no longer be seen as “just another expense”, instead essential to achieve better sustainability outcomes and financial returns.

We have seen governments facing pressure to pledge ambitious net zero targets, but meeting these targets depends on more than government pledges, with businesses and investors having a vital role to play. Reports have shown that when businesses consider the environmental impact of their investments, they subsequently yield greater value in the future – both from a financial and environmental point of view. The climate crisis poses a financial risk in terms of both physical and transition risks. Transition risks will arise as the economy shifts to become low-carbon and more climate-resilient. As a result, we are seeing more organisations making zero carbon commitments and restructuring their business model and operations to hit their reduction targets.

Main motivations for Real Estate Investment Managers to consider a Carbon Management Plan:

  • Growing pressure with climate-related risks and financial disclosures;
  • ESG Program covering emissions Scope 1, 2 and 3, and a pathway for net zero target;
  • Reliability and Consistency following recognised and approved international standards;
  • Science-based decision making process for more sustainable and cost effective choices at early design stage;
  • Recognition for Industry leadership and collaboration.

Life Cycle Design for projects and portfolio

Over the past decades legislation has focused on the operational impacts of buildings from heating and lighting, rather than on the impacts from the construction materials. In the majority of  countries there is still no legislation requiring the measurement of embodied carbon, although some countries are now providing leadership. There is also insufficient transparency and availability of comparable data for designers, contractors and decision makers.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been recognised as the most comprehensive method for calculating and reporting greenhouse gas emissions for construction projects. Life-cycle assessments and resulting life-cycle cost considerations are becoming increasingly important and turn the focus on the long-term benefits of sustainable real estate.

In the real estate market in particular, the use of LCA will enable investors to quantify, compare and improve the environmental performance of their assets, and more broadly, the use of LCA will assist in showing how real estate assets that have the highest level of sustainable performance, can drive higher rental incomes and increase client satisfaction. 

“Clients in the real estate market have benefited from the extensive information that can be extracted from eToolLCD and used in Sustainability reports and Carbon Management Programs. Goodman Group and Frasers Property have committed to reduce and offset their Embodied carbon emissions. Using eToolLCD software helps to achieve this goal across their entire portfolio” – says Maryia Perthen, eTool BD Manager.

eTool provides eToolLCD, a calculation tool to measure and report whole life carbon, including both operational and embodied emissions associated with individual projects and portfolios. This calculation covers initial and long term impacts of:

  • Materials
  • Transport
  • Construction
  • Operation (maintenance, repair, replacement)
  • Operational Energy (gas, electricity, other sources)
  • Operational Water supply and treatment
  • End of Life (demolition, waste processing, disposal)
  • Benefits and Impacts beyond the system boundary (product reuse, energy export)

The figure below explains the different life cycle stages and split between embodied and operational carbon:

Life Cycle Design methodology applied to Portfolio Carbon Management will enable Real Estate Investment Managers to track, improve and demonstrate emissions reduction on the path to net zero

  • Measure: Quantify baseline emissions of each building, conduct hot-spot analysis and determine how far there is to go to reach zero emissions.
  • Compare and set a reduction target: Develop a target to achieve the objectives of investors, regulatory requirements/bodies and stakeholders.
  • Create scenarios and reduce impact: Understand the contribution of each improvement strategy and prioritise to achieve the best life cycle return on investment.
  • Certify results and report: Conduct independent review of models and produce results aligned with standards for increased transparency and consistency.

Utilise LCA across the value chain

The use of Life Cycle Analysis is not limited to new build projects only. By utilising the power of eToolLCD, investors can quantify the environmental impacts of any construction project or existing real estate portfolio. Examples include:

  • Modelling Existing Buildings for Adaptive-Reuse in eToolLCD
  • Foot Printing “As Built” or Existing Building
  • Retrofit or Refurbishment of Existing Building
  • New Building that Retains Parts of Existing Building

New Build and Refurbishment Projects

No matter the size of the project, eToolLCD can be utilised throughout all the relevant project stages, allowing the users to model effective component and building level LCA assessments at any project phase.

eToolLCD has benchmark models that can be used at concept stage when only typology and rough floor area is defined. As the design progresses, eToolLCD’s unique template system can be utilised to provide industry average specification and quantities of construction components (piling system, floor slab, structural elements, walls, finishes, services, etc) as well as operational energy and operational water figures. 

Our ever growing library contains 1000’s of templates applicable to all kinds of building and infrastructure projects being built across the globe. Users have the ability to customise construction components and also combine templates to create whole project benchmarks

Standing Assets

eToolLCD can fully support investor and corporate occupiers requirements with regards to Standing Assets, and will enable Facilities Managers to record actual in-use emissions on an annual basis. This will allow the client to better understand the carbon impacts of maintenance, repair and replacement cycles, and to improve this going forward.

eToolLCD can also be utilised to coordinate the expected replacement cycles of key elements (e.g. central plant) and ensure that purchasing can be done with the optimum carbon and financial efficiency on a portfolio wide basis.

Achieve life cycle environmental net benefit

An example of how Life Cycle Design methodology can be used to make informed decisions, is to calculate the environmental payback of a Solar Photovoltaic system over its whole life cycle. The same system can take twice as long to payback in environmental terms depending on the location and the carbon intensity the solar PV system is connected to. There is no simple answer as the result will depend on multiple variables including:

  • Technology efficiency, durability, warranty terms;
  • Solar generation capacity: location, shading, maintenance, cleaning;
  • Environmental Product Declaration – solar panels, inverter, cabling, framing
  • Electricity Grid carbon intensity, as the replaced energy source
  • Electricity Grid decarbonisation factor, accounting for increase contribution of renewables

Industry progress and motivators

Regulatory requirements

There is also a main driving force for change that will be made at a national government level, through legislation and regulations to reduce emissions. Various examples throughout the globe include:

  • The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) recently released a proposed rule requiring mandatory climate disclosure from all U.S. public companies, called the Enhancement and Standardization of Climate-Related Disclosures for Investors
  • Climate standard of the IFRS’ International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB)
  • Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TFCD)

Embodied Carbon Regulations

  • London Plan Policy SI 2 sets out a requirement for developments to calculate and reduce WLC emissions.
  • Part Z – A Proposed Amendment to UK Building Regulations to introduce legislation towards mandatory reporting of carbon emissions in the built environment, along with limiting embodied carbon emissions on projects.
  • Various other regulatory programs in Canada, France, Netherlands and USA.

Other non-regulatory requirements include for example, the World Green Building Council’s (WGBC) Net Zero Carbon Buildings Commitment to reduce (and compensate) all operational and upfront embodied carbon emissions by 2030.

Environmental data and software tools

Regulations will help create free-to-use products and buildings database to reduce complexity and assist the benchmarking and target setting process.

  • Standardisation
  • Increase research and development
  • Reduced complexity, web-based and easy to use
  • Cost effective, SaaS model
  • Increased market demand to meet rating schemes and regulatory requirements

Supporting Green Rating Schemes and Regulatory Requirements

As LCA of the built environment rapidly propagates as a standard component of sustainable design, most rating schemes (buildings and infrastructure) around the world have begun to or/and have already integrated LCA into their credits and framework. eToolLCD meets the requirements of many international schemes and has been successfully utilised to improve the rating performance for many projects all over the world. 

LCA studies conducted for Rating System purposes (frequently with a limited scope covered) can be integrated with LCA studies conducted for Corporate Reporting or Regulatory purpose and ensure the alignment between different use and application of sustainability credentials and LCA results. One example is the increased use of eToolLCD to meet the London Plan – Whole Life Carbon Assessment requirements. eToolLCD is approved by the Greater London Authority (GLA) and is aligned with the RICS guidance to ensure consistency in the lifecycle carbon results. 

Benchmarking embodied carbon

Embodied carbon of new buildings now represents a significant contributor to total emissions. Embodied carbon is often associated with Supply Chain emissions and Scope 3 emissions. Carbon emissions released before the building begins to be used (upfront carbon), will be responsible for half of the entire carbon footprint of new construction between now and 2050.

In order to prevent and mitigate embodied emissions, increase resource efficiency and stimulate the development and market supply of low carbon products, the sector must:

  • reduce and account for its impact on the environment and natural resources through design and construction, and
  • generate a strong and urgent demand signal to activate the necessary finance to decarbonise materials, construction and heavy industry processes.

Advantages of using LCA to calculate embodied carbon

  • Reliable industry-based data (EPD, LCA process-based inventory)
  • Data quality requirements (ISO, EN standard compliant)
  • Tools and functionality (increased scope, streamlined modelling and reporting process (Importing features, BIM integration)
  • Consistency/common metric, standard compliant results and reporting
  • Independent review, third party verification

Recommended process for benchmarking embodied carbon

  • Calculation method: Standard BS EN 15978:2011 Sustainability of construction works. Assessment of environmental performance of buildings.
  • Technical Guidance: RICS Whole life carbon assessment for the built environment
  • System boundary, life cycle stages: Whole life carbon (A-D) and Embodied Carbon (A1-A5, B1-B5, C1-C4)
  • Construction Scope: Substructure, Superstructure, Façade, Finishes, Services, Fittings and Furnishing
  • Data quality: Standard compliant data (EN15804, ISO21930, EPD) Utilise detailed spec: volume, mass, size, quantity, not only financial information.
  • Independent review: Standard compliant review (ISO14044)

Benchmarking and target setting using LCA As-built calculation

  • Accurate measurement of the true embodied carbon to practical completion of a project
  • Specification and origin (for Modules A1–A3) of each product and material delivered to site
  • Transportation mode and distance (for Module A4), will be known in detail
  • On-site material waste tracking and construction activity energy metering will inform a precise Module A5 value.

Impact Reduction Targets

According to the AR6 WG1 report, IPCC (August 2021): the residual global carbon budget to remain within 1.5° global warming with 66% probability is given as 400 billion tonnes CO2 from the start of 2020. Global CO2 emissions are about 36 billion tonnes per year, so the 400 billion tonnes will last just 11 years if no reductions are made.

For a high polluting country such as the UK, with CO2 emissions of 10 tonnes per person per year, the carbon budget will run out by the end of 2024, i.e. in 2 years

Embodied Carbon becomes more relevant in the route to Zero Carbon with the ultra energy efficient buildings and grid decarbonisation. Technical working groups like eTool, LETI, RIBA, GLA, CLF and World GBC recommend at least 40% reduction in embodied carbon by 2030.

As the organisation´s knowledge of embodied carbon increases, assessments utilising LCA methodology undertaken earlier in the design phase become easier to use for decision making. This in turn will lead to increased opportunities to take action on reducing the embodied carbon impact of projects and activities.

  1. Prioritize “Circular Design” – less new buildings and more reuse and refurbishment
  2. Designing more efficient buildings – reduce material and energy demand
  3. Requiring design optimization to use less material and chose lower carbon materials
  4. Requiring low- carbon procurement to ensure the materials used are lower impact than average

Functionality – maximise project primary function:

  • Net Lettable Area
  • Increased lifespan
  • Occupancy

Design and Structural optimisation:

  • Low Carbon Material (biobased)
  • Run whole life carbon scenarios for energy and buildings services
  • EPD – Use buying power to encourage and support the suppliers in their value chain to adopt more sustainable business practices.
  • Design for deconstruction and disassembly

Solutions to reduce emissions within the supply chain will be the most challenging, yet most impactful.

How to achieve your net zero carbon reduction target

  1. Identify key drivers – Investor pressure, tenant demand and increased asset value;
  2. Circular design – Less new buildings and more reuse and refurbishment projects
  3. ESG Program and Carbon Policy – Set targets and consistent requirements for all projects to follow across all their phases;
  4. Define scope and what it means to achieve net zero carbon in practice – Standard compliant whole life carbon calculation and reporting (EN15978);
  5. Quantify and improve performance – Measure the carbon footprint today and define strategies to hit desired target;
  6. Reduce Embodied Carbon – Optimise design to use less material and choose lower carbon options to achieve savings from upfront emissions, as well as operational and end of life embodied carbon;
    1. Materials efficiency can include using lightweight structures or secondary raw materials and products, minimising material loss on the building site and improving the service life and thus durability of products used in buildings. Structural designs for example are often over-engineered and dimensioned above the required level of performance.
    2. Ensuring the use of lowimpact refrigerants in projects should be a priority for all projects using refrigerant-based systems.
    3. Plan, design and specify low-carbon concrete solutions.
  7. Reduce energy consumption – Increase efficiency and the use of renewable energy. Eliminate fossil fuels.

Return on investment

Investors who target a sustainable strategy are rewarded through a combination of higher rents, stronger leasing velocity and higher occupancy rates throughout the cycle.

Global property insurance premiums have grown significantly as real estate portfolios sustain physical damage from natural disasters. Many existing properties will be rated as “high carbon” and will successively fall behind when competing for customers and occupancy rates and investors in the mid to longer term future.

Real-estate organisations can use their physical presence to generate and store energy with solar arrays and batteries, helping to stabilise energy grids and reduce the costs associated with clean energy. Firms can introduce new revenue streams, including vehicle charging, green-facilities management, and other on-site services that enable occupants’ sustainable preferences. Organisations can support occupants by tracking emissions using smart sensors and tracking energy consumption through heating, cooling, lighting, and space management.

Firms that are able to lower impact will reduce future costs of carbon offsetting and also have an advantage in attracting capital for net-zero buildings or investment themes that support community-scale decarbonization.

eToolLCD Software Features

Real Estate Portfolio Wide Reporting

Investors and corporate occupiers who are required to report their portfolio emissions, can utilise the robust LCA data available in eToolLCD via our reporting functionality. 

The reporting structure uses a Life-Cycle approach instead of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol standard (Scope 1, 2 and 3), and includes all assessment and reporting in relation to BS EN15978 life cycle stages (Product, Construction, Use, End of Life, Beyond project life cycle) to ensure the whole asset life cycle emissions are included in scope. GHG Protocol Scope 1, 2 and 3 results can also be extracted from eToolLCD.

eToolLCD Portfolio Wide Reporting allows the client to calculate and report Whole Life emissions applied to major developments, refurbishments, deconstruction of an asset and in-use developments. Software users can utilise the organisation dashboard, where GHG emission and reduction from all projects can be quantified. Software users can create projects and collaborate with the internal design team and external specialists in one centralised portal in eToolLCD.

Life Cycle Costing

LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Integration. It is unavoidable that where there is carbon, there is going to be a cost associated. However it is not always clear to the investor or client, that by reducing the environmental impacts, can also improve the bottom line. 

One of the most powerful parts of eToolLCD’s unique template structure is the inclusion of data on all people and equipment impacts as well as materials that make up a construction component. Templates include maintenance as well as replacement costs over the project life cycle, allowing users to conduct Life Cycle Costing integrated with environmental performance. More info on eToolLCD advanced features.

Common challenges and best practices in data collection and reporting

Organisations are used to GHG Protocol, mainly focusing on Scope 1 and 2 and not including Scope 3. Real Estate emissions categorised as Scope 3 are extremely significant and must be part of the calculation and reporting framework. Since Scope 3 emissions are not directly under a company’s control, they are difficult to assess. But companies cannot afford to bypass or ignore them anymore.

However it is important to distinguish between embodied carbon and what is classified as scope 3. For example:

  • tenant energy use (B6) is reported as scope 3, but it is not embodied carbon, it is indirect emissions, not controlled by the asset owner.
  • refrigerant gases fugitive emissions (B1 and Scope1) and equipment use (A5) depends if it is directly controlled by the organisation (Scope 1) or sub-contracted (Scope 3).

A whole life carbon approach using the project life cycle stages make it easier to assess all emissions associated with the project life cycle, despite the fact if they are owned or controlled by the organisation (direct / indirect) or upstream / downstream emissions.

Carbon Accounting vs Life Cycle Design. Carbon Accounting will focus on past emissions and use this information to help mitigate future emissions. Life Cycle Design has a focus on forecasting both upfront and long term emissions during early concept stage and preventing these emissions from occurring by finding better alternatives.

Carbon calculation based on LCA has specific standards for construction projects (EN15978) and materials (EN15804, ISO21930) which makes it easier for Real Estate organisations to include all emissions in scope with increased consistency and reproducibility.

About eTool

eTool serves the organisations who are aiming to lead the industry in delivering low carbon buildings and infrastructure. eTool provides eToolLCD software for optimising whole of life carbon and cost of new and existing construction projects, aligned with best practice international standards for Life Cycle Assessment. eToolLCD life cycle design software is targeted at large construction projects and asset portfolios. It is a technically superior, secure, collaborative, holistic, high value carbon management platform. Proven by our world leading customer and project list.

eToolLCD software will provide the following benefits when used as part of an ESG Program:

  • Easy to use and collaborative, large user base of LCA experts
  • Whole life carbon calculation, including both operational and embodied carbon
  • Detailed calculation of embodied carbon including upfront, maintenance and end of life emissions.
  • Full carbon accounting and extraction of results aligned with GHG Protocol (Scope 1, 2 and 3)
  • Design tool to assist the decision making process and best return on investment
  • Carbon management at project level as well as whole portfolio
  • Standard compliant data for materials and services (generic and product specific EPD), transport, construction impacts, operational water and operational energy

 

References:

UKGBC Scope 3 Guidance for Commercial Real Estate

 

 

 

Big News for Low Carbon Infrastructure

eTool achieved an IMPORTANT MILESTONE in March 2022 and we’d like to share some GOOD news with you:

Approval of eToolLCD by the Infrastructure Sustainability Council of Australia

eToolLCD (v18) has received official ISC Approval as ‘equivalent’ to the Infrastructure Sustainability Materials Calculator (ISMC v2.0.08) when configured in-line with the processes detailed in the ‘Equivalence Procedure’. eToolLCD can be used to conduct the Materials lifecycle impact measurement and reduction credit (RSO-6) within an applicable IS Rating submission.
eTool Product Team produced the Alignment Report and the ISC Equivalence Procedure which were reviewed and validated by the ISC Technical Advisors to ensure a robust comparison at an asset and material level (GWP and EnviroPoints) as well as functionality aspects.
eToolLCD provides additional processes enabling users to model and optioneer with greater accuracy and explore more low impact design options. eToolLCD was recognised for having a rich feature set to speed up the modelling process and allow integration with BIM / LCC.

This is very exciting because now ISC projects in Australia can complete an LCA and report on the RSO-6 credit and it’s a great time saving bonus to have.

 

If you are working on a ISC project, check this Guidance out and learn how to conduct an LCA for RSO-6 credit in eToolLCD.

 

Access free eToolLCD infrastructure training HERE.

 

If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. We are here for you.

 

Top 10 LCA modelling tips for eToolLCD users for the New ‘Green Star Buildings’ rating

New Green Star Buildings rating was launched in 2020. It is exciting to see the transition in Australia towards more sustainable buildings and stricter carbon reduction targets within the new GBCA rating scheme.

During the webinar (watch our webinar here) we explained in detail which credits of the new rating can be tackled with the software eToolLCD. You can find our support article that talks about credits here:

  • Credit 21 – Upfront Carbon Emissions (up to 6 points)
  • Credit 24 – Other Carbon Emissions (up to 4 points)
  • Credit 26 – Life Cycle Impacts (up to 2 points)

Top 10 tips for eToolLCD users:

  1. Learn to extract data for credits 21, 24 and 26 from the same LCA model
  2. Credit 21: Use ‘Demolition’ templates from eTool’s library to estimate Demolition works for Credit 21 (Webinar minute 27:00)
  3. Credit 21: Be aware of different requirements for accounting for carbon sequestration when using timber products from scope A1-A5 and from scope A-D (Webinar minute 19:40)
  4. Credit 21: Unleash more options to reduce Upfront Carbon from optimising Transport (A4) or Construction processes (A5) (Webinar minute 24:00)
  5. Credit 21: Try different EPDs to get a better Upfront Carbon reduction
  6. Credit 24: Use LCA model to Optimise Credit 24 and emissions from refrigerant gases and other emissions (Webinar minute 29:50)
  7. Credit 24: Optimise other emissions from module B (Webinar minute 32:40)
  8. Credit 26: Explaining how to conduct an LCA for the new rating (Webinar minute 37:10)
  9. Credit 26: Use eToolLCD decarbonisation grid scenario 2050 (40:20)
  10. To automate data import from eTool into GBCA calculators, please vote on this feature request. We have many feature requests and have to prioritise. 🙂 The rule is that when it gets 20 votes, we will start working on it. Hurry up so it’s implemented sooner.

 

We look forward to hearing from you. If you are working on a Green Star Buildings project, let us know if you wish to discuss with us or need any help.

eTool’s End of the Year 2021 Message

      Some of the achievement eTool celebrates in 2021:

  • It is encouraging to see the construction industry response this year towards the net zero carbon goal. More and more people from all over the world realize now how crucial it is to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Our customized LCA tool for the construction industry gets more robust and dynamic each year which makes it easier to use and improves consistency aligned with international standards and technical requirements. The tool is constantly reviewed by specialized security teams as we expand our global presence with government agencies and large enterprise organizations.
  • We are recognized for our integrity, teamwork and passion for the environment. Throughout the year we have supported technical working groups in different infrastructure and buildings rating systems as well as government regulations. We also held various webinars and produced articles to share our knowledge with our clients, partners and industry professionals.
  • eTool has partnered with a global company to accelerate the adoption of life cycle design in construction and refurbishment projects aiming to improve the quality of life in balance with the planet.

Some other achievements s eTool celebrates this year:
eTool Community: 

  • We gained over 1300 new users
  • We modelled 1,720 New Projects
  • We tested 3,589 Design Scenarios
  • Our LCD Coaching team certified 317 Designs.

Services Team: 

  • We serviced 66 New Projects across a huge range of infrastructure project types and building typologies
  • We tested 1,425 Design Strategies with hundreds of thousands of tonnes of CO2 savings potential presented to clients
  • We are experiencing large increase in interest for our Life Cycle Design services with a focus on reducing carbon.

Software development highlights include: 

  • RapidLCA pilots run successfully with Witchcliffe Eco Village, City of Vincent and Canberra Low Carbon Housing Challenge
  • We implemented the new “Scenarios” modelling functionality
  • We improved EPD functionality including Excel copy paste and importing data from Excel
  • We introduced Specialist Hotseat and External Specialist seats for organisations managing large portfolios of assets.
  • We are on the right track towards much more achievements in 2022 and are confident to serve the planet in a more effective and productive way.

We celebrate each year as we maintain a very high customer retention rate at the same time we expand into new markets and different regions. Thank all our clients for the support and contribution to transition the industry into a low carbon future.

Yours sincerely,

eTool team.

eToolLCD Certification Service (Third Party Review)

Ever since the early days of eTool back in 2012 we highlighted one of the risks to widespread LCA adoption is the varying levels of quality in building LCA models and subsequent loss in confidence of the results and conclusions drawn.

To mitigate this, as well as our free of charge eToolLCD training, eTool have also ingrained a formal certification process provided with any paid for eToolLCD Subscription and associated project access fee. ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards for LCA call for all studies to be verified by a third party, therefore it made sense for eTool to offer this certification service, as we understand the inner workings of the software which is important for LCA verification. This approach allows eTool to carefully manage the user experience enhancing the users LCA writing skills by assessing users ‘inputs, whilst ensuring quality and comparability.

During the certification process, a senior eTool LCD practitioner is made available to your project for the purposes of:

  • Assisting the LCA team with completing the study in compliance with relevant standards and rating systems (we have now completed over 400 projects for BREEAM, LEED and Green Star so will ensure the model is completed to the correct requirements and no hold ups occur during the LCA credit  verification).
  • Providing credit for “3rd party verification” under BREEAM 2018.
  • Reducing the risk to your clients and elevating the professionalism of your service by peer-reviewing your LCA study to ISO 14040 and ISO14044 standards.
  • Assisting the LCA team with challenging concepts or modelling requirements.
  • Improving the LCA teams efficiency in completing LCA/LCCs using eToolLCD.
  • Providing the LCA team with potential strategies that may be worth considering to reduce the impact of the design.

The certifier will be “suitably qualified” to undertake peer reviews having as a minimum:

  • Completed at least 3 paid for LCAs within the last 2 years
  • eToolLCD advanced training course
  • Experience or qualifications in interpreting construction documentation

The certification system ensures that consistent, high-quality LCA studies are produced from the eToolLCD software. This lends further credibility to your work when clients see the eTool brand on your reports. Outcomes after initial certification requests and interaction with a senior eTool LCD practitioner during third party review has seen a considerable difference in tCO2e saved.

For practiced users of eToolLCD, our certification system offers the benefit of a dedicated support section to complement existing experience. Utilising our certification system, users will benefit from a very quick third party review and subsequent certification, due to the level of quality input data.  

The certification is provided for up to 6 designs within an eToolLCD Building or Infrastructure entity. These designs may be very early stage models, or later stage complete LCA/LCC models or a combination, typically:

  • Concept Design Stage Base Model
  • Concept Design Stage Improved Model(s) (including optioneering)
  • Concept Design Stage Final Model
  • Technical Design Stage Base Model
  • Technical Design Stage Improved Model(s) (including optioneering)
  • Technical Design Stage Final Model

eTool understands that good LCA/LCC modelling is an iterative process and will be on-hand from the outset to provide assistance and answer any questions surrounding the modelling and certification.

Certification Process:

  1. eToolLCD user conducts self review and submits initial model for review
  2. eTool staff complete quality checks on eToolLCD model and provides feedback
  3. eToolLCD user complete / update eToolLCD model
  4. eToolLCD user submit final model for certification
  5. eTool staff completes certification and issue Certifier Review Statement

BREEAM Third Party Verification

In addition to ISO14040 and ISO 14044 quality checks the certifier will also review the following for both baseline models and optioneering models, in line with BREEAM 2018 requirements:

  • Material quantities are within +-10% of those shown in design documentation (both concept and technical design stage models)
  • Where default figures for product service life, transport distance and construction waste have been adapted from generic material default values, there is adequate justification and references.
  • Adhesives are included if cover more than 20% of materials surface
  •  Study period of 60 years

The deliverables are as follows:

  •  eToolLCD Certifier Review Statement documenting checks made, comments and user responses using the certification checklist
  • Phone/email and web link support throughout the process.

Additional information can be found at the Subscription, Project Licenses and Project Certification sections of eToolLCD Software Use Terms and Conditions and eTool Services Specification.

Additional information regarding eToolLCD Project Access Fees can be found here.

* Effective modelling and certification is a result of the eToolLCD software being utilised as it has been designed/intended to be used. The certification service helps ensure that eToolLCD software is appropriately used by ensuring a high quality of user inputs. Studies are conducted by the author (not eTool), and if deviated away from standard processes, are exposed to the risk of errors in the model and authors adding information without notifying the reviewer. In these circumstances the reviewer will flag any concerns in the certifier review statement, but can not be held liable for inaccurate reports.
** It should be noted that as the review has not been conducted by a panel of experts, publication of the comparative results of the LCA would breach ISO 14044 and EN15978 unless the relevant sections of the standards were addressed, in particular requiring a panel review team for comparative studies. 
*** Users who wish to make eToolLCD results public, will also be required to provide a Third Party Verified LCA compliant report.

Warehouse benchmark – LEED certified projects

eTool has developed a warehouse benchmark study in collaboration with CTE, a Brazilian Engineering and Consultancy firm, following the growing demand for Life Cycle Design services in LEED certified projects. 

The objective of this study is to share benchmarking results, deep dive on project hot spot areas, identify the best improvement strategies and assist design teams to set impact reduction targets at concept stage. 

LEED is helping drive the use of Life Cycle Assessment in construction and this study encompasses the final design of seven warehouses in Brazil that were assessed according to the Building Life Cycle Impact Reduction credit (MRc1 – Option 4 – Whole Building LCA).

The size of these projects vary between 62,818 m2 and 6,128 m2. Functional equivalence comparison also considered an average height of 13.6m.

The LCA credit is focused on project´s core, structure and enclosure materials impacts and the reduced scope includes the following life cycle modules:

  • A1-A3 – Product Stage
  • A4 – Transport
  • B1-B5 – Use, Maintenance, Replacement
  • C1-C4 – End of Life

eToolLCD software was used to conduct the study using Life Cycle Strategies North American v17 Life Cycle Inventory, compliant with EN15804 and ISO14044. The impact assessment method is CML – IA baseline V4.5. Service life is 60 years.

The construction scope covers the complete building envelope and structural elements, including footings and foundations, structural floors, columns, beams, structural wall assembly (from cladding to interior finishes), external doors, glazing, and roof assemblies. Estimated demolition impacts are also included. 

LEED certified warehouse (Brazil) – Carbon benchmark

Typical warehouse construction in Brazil uses reinforced concrete footing and piling, concrete slab, prefabricated concrete columns and beams, rendered concrete block walls, concrete panels or steel cladding, steel roof structure and insulated steel roof covering. 

The majority of the materials´impacts are associated with concrete and steel. The use of clinker replacement in cement is becoming more common and partial use of blast furnace slag was assumed in concrete mix for foundation and structural floors. Above average percentage of high recycled content in steel reinforcement was also considered as part of the benchmark model. These assumptions will help drive change in the segment as they become more common and are now considered typical practice for LEED certified projects.

LEED warehouse (27859 m2) – material inventory summary

 

LEED warehouse benchmark – EN15978 table (reduced scope)

Good structural design can significantly reduce embodied carbon, especially when different scenarios are tested at concept stage. Not only evaluating the impacts of materials but also the effect of different construction methods and technologies. eToolLCD users can quickly assess warehouse environmental impacts at concept design stage using whole warehouse template (component level) available in the software. Note this custom template is developed following LEED credit requirements and covers a limited scope. eTool encourages a whole of project analysis including all life cycle stages and full construction scope. This allows early stage analysis to help inform design teams test different scenarios and potential improvement strategies before progressing to detailed design stage.

For more information please contact us.

The new London Plan – How to meet its requirements

After its initial publication way back in 2017, and after many modifications, the new London Plan came into effect on 2nd March 2021.  One of the key directives is the use of Whole Life Carbon Assessments in an endeavour to meet net zero carbon commitments. In this article we look at what the new London Plan means for “Major Referable Projects” and how eToolLCD can be utilised in accordance with the new London Plan.

eToolLCD GLA Approved

Firstly, it is important to highlight that the GLA guidance requires that Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessments should be carried out using a nationally recognised assessment methodology. eTool are proud to announce that eToolLCD is one of the tools approved by the GLA. Some of the key benefits to using eToolLCD for your Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessments include:

  • Detailed support article on how to produce results and fill out the required submission template
  • SAP10 and Future decarbonisation grids already available in the software
  • All life cycle modules including module D
  • Biogenic carbon reported separately (EN15804 +A2 compliant)
  • Various end of life scenarios to choose from
  • All other software features listed in our subscriptions page

The London Plan – Overview

With an objective of becoming a net zero-carbon city by 2050, the London Plan is the statutory Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London and the 32 London boroughs, and is prepared by the Mayor of London in accordance with the Greater London Authority (GLA). All major projects are required to meet the net zero carbon target and must show an on-site reduction of at least 35 per cent beyond the baseline of Part L of the current Building Regulations.

Below references chapter 9 of the new London Plan, which covers Sustainable Infrastructure (SI). Policies SI 2 and SI 7 are the key policies with regards to the planning process for major developments.

Policy SI 2: Minimise Greenhouse gas emissions

Major development proposals should calculate and minimise carbon emissions from any other part of the development, including plant or equipment, that are not covered by Building Regulations, i.e. unregulated emissions.

Development proposals referable to the Mayor should calculate whole lifecycle carbon emissions through a nationally recognised Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessment and demonstrate actions taken to reduce life-cycle carbon emissions.

9.2.11 – Operational carbon emissions will make up a declining proportion of a development’s whole life-cycle carbon emissions as operational carbon targets become more stringent. To fully capture a development’s carbon impact, a whole life-cycle approach is needed to capture its unregulated emissions (i.e. those associated with cooking and small appliances), its embodied emissions (i.e. those associated with raw material extraction, manufacture and transport of building materials and construction) and emissions associated with maintenance, repair and replacement as well as dismantling, demolition and eventual material disposal). Whole life-cycle carbon emission assessments are therefore required for development proposals referable to the Mayor (more information on referable applications below).

Major non-referable development should calculate unregulated emissions and are encouraged to undertake whole life-cycle carbon assessments. The approach to whole life-cycle carbon emissions assessments, including when they should take place, what they should contain and how information should be reported, will be set out in guidance.

Policy SI 7:  Reducing waste and supporting the circular economy

Referable applications should promote circular economy outcomes and aim to be net zero-waste. A Circular Economy Statement should be submitted, for all major projects to demonstrate:

1) How all materials arising from demolition and remediation works will be re-used and/or recycled

2) How the proposal’s design and construction will reduce material demands and enable building materials, components and products to be disassembled and re-used at the end of their useful life

3) Opportunities for managing as much waste as possible on site

4) Adequate and easily accessible storage space and collection systems to support recycling and re-use

5) How much waste the proposal is expected to generate, and how and where the waste will be managed in accordance with the waste hierarchy

6) How performance will be monitored and reported

Referable applications

Under the requirements of the London Plan, any major developments that fall under a specific criterion require a referral to the Mayor of London. The criteria include schemes of 150 homes or more. They will also cover projects over 100,000 square metres in the City of London, 20,000 square metres in central boroughs or 15,000 square metres in outer boroughs.

Buildings that are over 25 metres in height within the Thames Policy Area, 150 metres in height elsewhere in the City of London and 30 metres in height elsewhere in London will also be referable.

When to submit a Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessment

Whole Life Carbon Assessments should cover the development’s carbon emissions over its life-time, accounting for both operational and embodied carbon and any future potential carbon emissions ‘benefits’, post ‘end of life’, including benefits from reuse and recycling of building structure and materials. (as mentioned in London Plan Policy SI 7 ‘Reducing waste and supporting the circular economy’).

The GLA guidance on Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessments follows the European Standard for measuring building performance – EN 15978 and the also RICS Professional Statement: Whole Life Carbon assessment for the built environment. It is also prudent to mention that RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) have also adopted the RICS Professional Statement (more information can be found in this paper by RIBA).

Planning applicants are required to submit a WLC assessment at the following stages:

  • Pre-application 

General information about the project site and a questionnaire with details of the Whole Life-Cycle Reduction principles.

  • Stage 1 submission (i.e. RIBA Stage 2/3)

A baseline WLC assessment should cover the entirety of modules A, B, C and D to comply with Policy SI 2. With regards to grid decarbonisation , applicants should provide two sets of WLC emission figures. The first set of figures will be based on the current status of the electricity grid, and the second set of figures should be based on the expected decarbonisation of the electricity grid over the lifetime of the development. Details on material type, quantity and end of life scenarios are also required.

  • Post-construction (i.e. upon commencement of RIBA Stage 6 and prior to the building being handed over, if applicable) 

Update of the information provided at planning stage and actual WLC results using material quantities and site emissions during construction. Generally, it would be expected that the assessment would be received three months post-construction.

A Whole Life-Cycle Assessment draft guidance and draft template is currently under development which comprises all of the information applicants will need to submit at each stage. This template should be completed and submitted to the GLA to ensure clarity and transparency.

How eToolLCD can be utilised to conduct Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Assessment in accordance with the new London Plan

Pre-application stage

  • eToolLCD  provides users the ability to produce models at concept stage and provide early design advice (see this article on Target Setting)
  • eToolLCD benchmarks available in the software library to assist the design team during the concept stage.

Planning submission stage

  • WLC Assessment Reporting Template – At eTool, we have reviewed the WLC Assessment reporting template and have prepared an eToolLCD to GLA WLC Report Spreadsheet to help our users populate the results for Assessment 1 and Assessment 2 at the Outline Planning and Detailed Planning stages.
  • EN 15978 – eToolLCD is fully compliant with BS EN 15978 including all life cycle stages A, B, C and D.

  • RICS – eToolLCD allows consultants to adhere to the application of the RICS Whole of Life Carbon Assessment for the Built Form professional statement. The following link gives a detailed summary of the “Must” requirements from the standard and associated detail on eToolLCD’s compliance.
  • Grid Decarbonisation – eToolLCD users can now calculate the operational impact of their projects considering the future decarbonisation of electricity grids
  • Scenarios – The Scenarios feature allows branching of design improvements. It gives the user the ability to define the starting point for the scenario and explore different routes for project changes. For example, understanding the difference from using Blast Furnace Slag versus Fly Ash as cement replacement in concrete. The benefit of this feature is the flexibility to model design strategies in parallel from different starting points, instead of a linear sequential order where an improvement is fully dependent on all previous changes. As the design progresses, the model can be adjusted with the appropriate starting point scenarios and the subsequent strategies can be considered, instead of having to remodel all recommendations again from the baseline design.

  • Design features – Advanced features will allow you to quantify, compare and improve the performance of your projects from early design stage through to detailed development. The following link will explain in further detail some of the advanced features in eToolLCD such as Templates, EPD, Bulk Swap, Recommendations recording and Analysis.
  • Materials Inventory Summary Report – quickly extracts material type and quantity to help fill out the reporting template. 

Post-Construction stage

  •  eToolLCD Automated Reporting – Understand the modelling results at different stages of the life cycle design process through eToolLCD automated reporting functionality.

How eToolLCD can be utilised to support Policy Sl 7: Reducing waste and supporting the circular economy, in accordance with the new London Plan.

  • Materials Efficiency Metric – The eToolLCD Materials Efficiency Metric was created to calculate material circularity and apply it to a whole asset analysis. The metric is calculated based on the mass of material that is virgin or reused, and the amount of renewable and non-renewable primary and secondary material.

The draft “Whole of Life Cycle Carbon Assessment Guidance”, was formally consulted at the beginning of 2021. Responses are currently being analysed, with final guidance due to be published later this year. eTool will release further information regarding this topic and what it means for eToolLCD users as the final guidance is released.

eTool Webinar (Youtube)

 

References

https://etoolglobal.com/eblog/design/londonplanpolicy/
https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/the_london_plan_2021.pdf
https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/wlc_guidance_consultation_version_oct_2020.pdf
http://content.tfl.gov.uk/referable-criteria-mayor-london-order.pdf

 

What is it like building a carbon negative home?

It all started with developers from Western Australia who had a vision to create the most sustainable residential community possible.

It took more than 10 years to acquire the land, finalise the design, receive all the required approvals to finally start the construction in March 2021.

The Witchcliffe Ecovillage offers its residents a sustainable lifestyle and the opportunity to be part of a community that is self-sufficient in water, solar energy, fresh food produce, as well as looking after their waste management.

  What is special about this village?

 

Let’s have a closer look and see what they did differently. A few features of the project that might interest an architect or a builder include:

  • Proof of carbon negativity.

Each house needs to demonstrate that its carbon emissions over 120 years won’t exceed a set specific target of a – 220kgCO2e / occupant / year. Basically, these homes are good for environment. ?

  • Power from the sun.

Houses are carefully designed based on passive solar design principles. Each house needs to install at least 6kW of solar PV panels on the roof. Each cluster is connected to a microgrid and a centralised Tesla Powerpack battery. The connection to the external Western Power grid allows the Ecovillage to sell its excess power and provides power during construction.

  • Water from the rain.

All potable water in the Ecovillage comes from rainwater capture. Each home needs to install a rainwater tank. The water is processed and purified in a closed loop on the site.

  • Food from the garden.

The homeowners of the Ecovillage can use collected rainwater from the communal dam to water their gardens and orchards. It sounds like a dream to have an unlimited supply of fresh vegetables and fruit that everyone can harvest in the Ecovillage.

Image1. U-shaped residential cluster with community garden and open spaces

 

Why go beyond carbon neutrality?

Carbon neutrality is achieved when a building has zero annual emissions from energy use. This is not a hard task especially with solar passive principles and use of renewables.  Having an extensive solar system helps to neutralize some additional emissions.

The idea to go beyond carbon neutrality came from the need to also neutralise the embodied energy, or emissions caused by materials and their maintenance over the life of the building.

Using low carbon materials can have a positive effect on air quality and health, but also help the building to last longer.  After consulting with sustainability experts to understand which materials to use and which to avoid, it became clear that life cycle assessment (LCA) should be incorporated into the design and review process of each building.

Image2. A beautiful example of a strawbale home in Margaret River

Every parent’s dream is a child coming back home.

Looking at materials is important to make the picture holistic and to make sure the house you are building will last longer and can be passed on to future generations. For those who know LCA, it’s clear that carbon reduction will result in reduction of energy and water bills, cost of future repairs and maintenance, and will have the lowest long-term impact on nature.

It’s a simple equation:

Lower carbon = Lower cost.

 

How to measure carbon neutrality?

It may surprise many that most new homes could achieve 50-70% CO2 reduction without large investment. In fact, the City of Vincent in Western Australia requires all new houses to achieve at least 50% C02 reduction for design approval. It is a huge mind shift and step forward towards sustainable housing.

Each Ecovillage home needs to demonstrate that its whole of life carbon emissions won’t exceed a set specific target of -220kgCO2e / occupant / year.  It can be also expressed as a percentage of CO2 saving versus a benchmark residence, the target being a 105% carbon saving. Once future homebuyers have completed the concept and materials to use in their new homes, they need to confirm that their home is meeting the set targets in the Witchliffe Ecovillage Sustainable Building Design Guidelines.

To measure carbon, you need a tool that is easy and robust enough to calculate future home emissions. It also should be flexible and non-prescriptive, so that designers can be creative and explore different options of sustainable design and remain within their budget.

To support this effort, the Ecovillage team commissioned software company eTool to develop a new tool, which needed to be intuitive to use and provide the necessary confirmation. eTool is an LCA software provider and passionate environmentalist and has always had a soft spot for residential projects trying to lower their carbon footprint and their energy bills.

The first prototype was called eTool Turbo, then Lifecycle.House, but we ended calling it RapidLCA.

 

RapidLCA App for Low carbon HOMES and more…

The eTool team was inspired to be involved with such an iconic project as the Witchcliffe.

The process for RapidApp users is simple:

  • Download the app and find your lot or address
  • Spend 20-30 minutes to input data
  • Generate a compliance report showing your home’s carbon footprint and required targets are met
  • Submit for design approval, build permit, or even green loan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future of the RapidLCA App

As of early 2021, about 100 homes have undergone an LCA using the RapidLCA app and no-one was struggling to meet the metric of 105% CO2 reduction. In fact, many were exceeding the target, which proved that LCA is not hard and can be done by anyone, even without an architectural or engineering degree.

eTool is now working on enabling the one-off assessments for single use and extra features for interested developers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Get in contact with US if you would like to know more.

 

Concreto com impacto ambiental reduzido (Portuguese)

Remover o carbono das edificações, incluindo materiais, é um desafio para conter o aquecimento global e as mudanças climáticas. Existe um movimento internacional em ascensão por parte de arquitetos, engenheiros, projetistas e proprietários de edificações com soluções inspiradoras.

A importância dada pela equipe de projeto à eficiência energética é cada vez mais compartilhada com os materiais de baixo carbono. Isso significa materiais que possuem baixo impacto incorporado durante processo de extração e fabricação, considerando também manutenção e durabilidade.

O material que em muitos projetos tem a maior relevância nos impactos é o concreto. Mais especificamente o cimento, e não os agregados ou a água. A quantidade de cimento no traço do concreto é a chave. O processo de produção do cimento envolve “assar” o calcário em fornos com temperatura acima de 1000°C geralmente abastecidos por combustíveis fósseis como carvão ou gás para produção do clínquer. Esta etapa corresponde à metade das emissões de gases que causam o aquecimento global. A outra metade vem do processo químico de calcinação da rocha calcária e emissão de CO2 para a atmosfera.

A redução do teor de clínquer do cimento e eficiência de dosagem (kg de cimento / m3 de concreto) possuem um grande potencial para redução dos impactos relacionados ao concreto. Outra maneira de reduzir o impacto incorporado do concreto é simplesmente dar mais tempo para o concreto curar e ele irá atingir a resistência necessária.

Geralmente o traço do concreto é definido próximo a fase de construção em conjunto entre construtora, projetista estrutural e empresa fornecedora. Práticas de projeto integrado com alto desempenho ambiental já avaliam especificações de concreto durante a fase de concepção do projeto.

Uma experiência recente foi um projeto que a eTool fez um estudo de impacto dos materiais durante a fase inicial do projeto e estabeleceu como meta a redução de impacto do concreto para atendimento à certificação LEED. A construtora por sua vez, em colaboração com projetistas estruturais, especialistas em concreto e fornecedores, desenvolveram e testaram um traço de concreto utilizando cimento CPIII com percentual de 50% de escória de alto forno em substituição ao clínquer. Esta melhoria foi quantificada utilizando o software eToolLCD e resultou na redução estimada em 4.840 toneladas de CO2. Para se ter uma idéia do que este valor representa, seria necessário 24.000 árvores para compensar este total de emissões!

A demanda por um concreto de baixo carbono é cada vez maior e a indústria está se transformando para atender essa urgente necessidade. Movimentos como este para reduzir o impacto dos materiais fazem parte de uma transformação global que todos nós, profissionais do setor da construção civil e proprietários dos novos empreendimentos, somos responsáveis. A hora é agora!

Para mais detalhes, veja a publicação da revista Concreto IBRACON 104, realizada em colaboração com a empresa de Consultoria em Engenharia Civil Desek.